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Library - Plagiarism and Copyright: Citing & Referencing

Information in this LibGuide is organised to support and guide students in their academic activities.

Definition : Footnote and Referencing


Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page on which a reference or citation occurs in the text.

A number is placed in the text to indicate the cited work and again at the bottom of the page in front of the footnote.

Footnotes are used when only a small number of references need to be made


Referencing is a way to demonstrate that you have extended your reading, learning and comprehension by using relevant and up to date sources.

Primary sources refer to material the author has written, like all the works written by Shakespeare.

Secondary sources are written as interpretations, criticism, research, etc. about a subject or an author. An interpretation of Shakespeare’s tragedies will be categorised as secondary material on his tragedies. The tragedies themselves will be the primary sources

Parts of a citation

 The pdf document below is designed to give you examples on how to cite using the listed resources:

  • Books, e-Book, chapter in a book and article in print


Step by step guide on research process (source used have been taken from the Homework page)

RefWorks @UJ

It is an online research management, writing and collaboration tool. It is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.

If you need to manage information for any reason, whether it be for writing, research or collaboration, RefWorks is the perfect tool

The University of Johannesburg offers training on RefWorks.

Please consult with your subject/faculty Librarian for more information and training in your campus.

  • Only registered students and staff at the University of Johannesburg have access to RefWorks
  • It is accessible anywhere on and off campus as long as you have internet connection



Subject Guide

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Dawie Jacobs
University of Johannesburg Library
Auckland Park Campus
+27 11 559 3454

Inserting citation

This video gives you a step by step guide on how to insert in-text citations using word 2007 & 2010

Reasons for referencing

  •  To let the reader know whose ideas the writer are using.

  • To give recognition to the original author of a text, opinion, idea, fact, image, etc.

  •  To enable your reader to check your information.

  •  Sources confirm the completeness of the research.

  •  Quotations and references lend authority to the argument, view, etc.

  •  The source list can be consulted by the reader to verify information in the text.