What is citation?
A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:
Why should I cite sources?
Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:
Doesn't citing sources make my work seem less original?
Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.
When do I need to cite?
Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:
What to cite:
Most information or other forms of communication, including performance and visual arts, that have been written, recorded or presented into the public domain.
When to cite:
Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Introduction and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
When citing information from another's publication, be sure to report the relevant aspects of the work clearly, IN YOUR OWN WORDS.
When you CITE simply use the author surname from the reference and the year of publication. If required, insert the page number where possible.
…(Blake, 1998); by Tyson et al. (1994)
…the result of this is a “technical super identity”(Erikson, 1967:20).
Azar and Martin (1999) found that… (As part of the sentence)
…thus Cox (1966:52) refers to the modern urbanite as…
Source: UJ Harvard Reference Techniques
It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior (Gumwad 1952:209; Bugjuice 1970).
Click and Clack (1974) demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status (Anon. 1996; Bruhahauser et al 1973).“
Many researchers have investigated the use of technology in Higher Education (Blake, 1998; Davis, 1987:45; Johnson, n.d.; Tyson, Burke & Jacobs, 1994).