Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. It can include:
- Plagiarism: The adoption or reproduction of original creations of another author (person, collective, organization, community or other type of author, including anonymous authors) without due acknowledgment.
- Fabrication: The falsification of data, information, or citations in any formal academic exercise.
- Deception: Providing false information to an instructor concerning a formal academic exercise—e.g., giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely claiming to have submitted work.
- Cheating: Any attempt to give or obtain assistance in a formal academic exercise (like an examination) without due acknowledgment.
- Bribery: or paid services. Giving assignment answers or test answers for money.
- Sabotage: Acting to prevent others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others.
- Professorial misconduct: Professorial acts that are academically fraudulent equate to academic fraud and/or grade fraud.