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Science - Copyright, Plagiarism & Referencing : Citations: References

Definitions

What is citation?

A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

  • information about the author
  • the title of the work
  • the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
  • the date your copy was published
  • the page numbers of the material you are borrowing

Why should I cite sources?

Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:

  • citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from
  • not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas
  • citing sources shows the amount of research you've done
  • citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas

Doesn't citing sources make my work seem less original?

Not at all. On the contrary, citing sources actually helps your reader distinguish your ideas from those of your sources. This will actually emphasize the originality of your own work.

When do I need to cite?

Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:

  • whenever you use quotes
  • whenever you paraphrase
  • whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
  • whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
  • whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

Source

Harvard Referencing

Reference list: Example

Why Referencing?

It is a way to demonstrate that you have extended your reading and learning by using relevant and up to date resources.

Reasons for Citing & Referencing:

  • To let the reader know whose ideas you are using
  • To give recognition to the original author of the text, opinion, idea, fact, image, etc.
  • To enable your reader to check your information
  • The source list can be consulted by the lecturer to verify information in the text
  • The sources can be used by the reader as additional sources to a topic

Please, consult the UJ Harvard Reference list for full-detailed citing & referencing examples

Elements of Referencing a Book

Please, consult the UJ Harvard Reference list for full-detailed citing & referencing examples

Elements of Referencing an article

Please, consult the UJ Harvard Reference list for full-detailed citing & referencing examples

Elements of Referencing Internet article

Please, consult the UJ Harvard Reference list for full-detailed citing & referencing examples

Elements of Referencing Electronic book

Please, consult the UJ Harvard Reference list for full-detailed citing & referencing examples

Referencing: How to Cite Sources of Information

Subject Guide

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Pavlinka Kovatcheva
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