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Science - Geography 1: Reference Techniques

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Reference Techniques

Referencing a Journal Article

UJ Harvard Reference Techniques 

Example for Referencing an ARTICLE with 1 author:

Dyers, C. (2008). Language shift or maintenance? Factors determining the use of Afrikaans among some township youth in South Africa. Stellenbosch papers in Linguistics, 38:49-72.

Example for Referencing an ARTICLE with more than 3 authors:

Orom, U. A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M., Gumireddy, K., Gardini, A., Bussotti, G. & Shiekhattar, R. (2010). Long non-coding RNAs with enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58.


Orom, U.A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M. et al. (2010). Long non-coding RNA’s with Enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58


Orom, U.A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M., …Shiekhattar, R. (2010). Long noncoding RNAs with enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58

What is Referencing?

What is referencing?

It is a way to demonstrate that you have extended your learning.

Two reasons for referencing:

· To let the reader know whose ideas you are using

· To enable your reader to check your information

  • Proper references must be given and must be sited in text. Use numbers (in text) and then list them in the order of appearance OR use surnames (in text) and list in alphabetical order.

How to Reference a Journal article (Geography Reference Style)

Reference a journal article:

Authors (Surname and initials followed by comma after each initial e.g. James, J.& Snyman, M.) date. Title of article. Journal Name, volume number, first page number – last page number.


Clatworthy, M. and M.J. Jones. 2001: The effect of thematic structure on the variability of annual report readability. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 14 (3), 311–326.

Note:  In text you will refer to it as Clatworthy and Jones (2001)

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton R. A. 2000: The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163,51-59.

Note: In text you will refer to it as Van der Geer et al., (2000)

Reference journal article online:

Junior, R.M., P.J. Best & J. Cotter. 2013: Sustainability Reporting and Assurance: A Historical Analysis on a World-Wide Phenomenon. Journal of Business Ethics, doi: 10.10007/s10551-031-1637-y.

How to Reference a Book (Geography Reference Style)

Reference a book:

(Authors (follow each surname with a comma and full stops after initials (date). Title. (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.  Page numbers / Chapter.

Strunk Jr., W., & White, E. B. 1979: The elements of style (3rd Ed.). New York: Macmillan. Chapter 4.

Cox, C.B. and P.D. Moore. 2010: Biogeography: an ecological and evolutionary approach. New York: Wiley.

Reference a chapter in an edited book:

Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. 1994: How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.

Eccles, R.G., B. Cheng and D. Saltzman. (Eds.). 2010: The Landscape of Integrated Reporting: Reflections and Next Steps. Massachusetts: Harvard Business School.