Fluoride Toxicity in Animals (Online Springer) by Rakesh Ranjan; Amita RanjanThis book describes in detail various aspects of fluoride toxicity in animals. Animals, like human beings, suffer from the toxic effects of excess fluoride intake. They show pathological changes in their teeth and bone, together with a marked reduction in appetite, productive and reproductive potentials, which can result in severe economic losses in the dairy industry. Laboratory and wild animals also suffer from this ailment. Animal suffering and economic losses alike can be minimized through early diagnosis of the problem and by adopting suitable preventive and therapeutic measures. The book details the susceptibility of different animal species, important sources of toxicity, clinical signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, preventive and therapeutic approaches. It offers a valuable resource for scientists working in the fields of toxicology, veterinary science, animal nutrition, and environmental science, as well as for public health workers, animal welfare activists, public health veterinarians, field veterinarians, medical professionals and all others interested in the subject.
Publication Date: 2015
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY Online Books
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY: Ecology, Resource and Hazard Management (Online, AccessEngineering)The first of its kind to be applicable to the Indian environment, this comprehensive reference work uses the backdrop of geology to weave together components of earth process mechanisms, ecological systems, usage of earth resources such as land, soil, water and minerals, and accelerated activities of people looking for facilities and engineering techniques to contain adverse consequences on the biosphere. Multidisciplinary in coverage and holistic in approach, the book discusses the causes of degradation of our environment alongside the implications of resource depletion and suggests ways and means of combating the problems
Iodine: Characteristics, Sources and Health Implications (Online, ProQuest eBooks) by Adelina H. Martinez (Editor); Edelmiro J. Perez (Editor)Iodine is an important trace element and an essential substrate for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency can lead to goiter, hypterthyroidism, mental retardation and impaired growth. In this new book, the authors present topical research in the study of the characteristics, sources and health implications of iodine. Discussed in this compilation are the potential mechanism of iodine and iodine transporters in thyroid cancer; iodine supplementation and exposure during pregnancy and lactation; semiconductor-photocatalysed iodine generation; severe iodine deficiency disorders; and the role of cardiac imaging using iodine media in the detection of arrhythmogenic heart disease.
Publication Date: 2012-06-01
Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine (Online, ProQuest eBooks) by Victor R. Preedy (Editor); Gerard N. Burrow (Editor); Ronald Ross Watson (Editor)Over two billion people worldwide are at risk for the spectrum of disorders known as "The Iodine Deficiency Disorders." 1-10% will suffer cretinism; 5-30% will have some sort of brain damage or neurological impairment and 30-70% will be hypothyroid. The causes of iodine deficiencies can be considered from both simplistic and more complex perspectives: From the leaching of iodine from soil resulting in crops with low iodine content to malnutrition resulting in impaired iodine absorption. Poor dietary diversification and impoverished socio-economic development can also lead to iodine deficiencies. Although it is possible to diagnose and treat deficiencies, there is still an ongoing dialogue regarding the detailed molecular pathology of iodine homeostatis, how hypothyroidism impacts the body tissues, and efficient diagnosis and treatment of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders. This Handbook provides a resource of information on the various pathways and processes based on different countries or diseases. Because there is a constant flow of new information on iodine and related disorders, the goal of this Handbook is to provide a base of scientific information upon which additional knowledge can be applied. Provides important information on one of the most common micro-nutrient deficiencies in the world, the most important "single nutrient-multiple consequences" paradigm today Includes information on iodine-related diseases, including those that are common, preventable and treatable Provides insight from a broad perspective of viewpoints -- from subcellular transports to economic impact
Publication Date: 2009
ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Online Books
Environmental Toxicology by J. Rose (Editor)Because our chemical environment affects our physical and mental well-being, it is a matter of increasing concern and is therefore attracting much research effort. This timely collection of essays highlights current developments in the field of environmental toxicology. Chapters analyze the carcinogenic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and neurotoxic effects of both anthropogenic and natural toxins in the soil, air, and water around us, as well as in our workplace and diet. The book also examines the effects of toxins on other organisms, as well as the techniques, policies, and management strategies employed in studying and controlling environmental pollutants. It will be an essential reference to a variety of personnel in environmental studies and public health.
Publication Date: 1998
GROUNDWATER Online Books
Groundwater Arsenic Remediation by Parimal PalArsenic abatement from groundwater in locations with a central water distribution system is relatively simple. The real challenge is selecting the most effective and affordable treatment and scale up option for locations which lack the appropriate infrastructure. Groundwater Arsenic Remediation: Treatment Technology and Scale UP provides the latest breakthrough groundwater treatment technologies and modeling and simulation methods for project scale up and eventually field deployment in locations which lack the proper central water distribution system to ensure arsenic free groundwater. Covers the different removal methods, such as chemical, adsorption, separation by membranes, and membrane distillation Includes the state-of-the-art modeling & simulation methods for optimization and field deployment Provides economic and comparative analysis of each arsenic treatment technology
Publication Date: 2015
Saline Groundwater - Surface Water Interaction in Coastal Lowlands (Online) by J. R. DelsmanCoastal zones are among the world's most densely populated and economically important areas, but these factors put pressure on the often limited available freshwater resources. Global change will undoubtedly increase this pressure through the combined effects of increased population, economic development, rising sea levels, increased evapotranspiration, over-extraction and the salinization of coastal aquifers, decreasing river discharges, and accelerating land subsidence.Saline groundwater exfiltration is a common problem in the coastal zone of the Netherlands, but the hydrological processes and physiographic factors that affect this are not fully understood. The research presented in this book aims to identify the processes and physiographic factors controlling the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of the exfiltration of saline groundwater to surface water, and hence the contribution of saline groundwater to surface water salinity. Topics covered include a paleo-hydrogeological model simulation of the Holocene evolution of groundwater salinity as a result of paleo-geographic changes; surface water salinity dynamics in a densely-drained lowland catchment; hydrograph separation in an agricultural catchment; observations of heads, flow, solute concentration and temperature to constrain a detailed, variable-density groundwater flow and transport model; and a model to simulate the salinity dynamics of exfiltrating groundwater to support operational water management of freshwater resources in coastal lowlands. The book further outlines the implications of these findings for freshwater management in the Netherlands. The book demonstrates that the salinity of groundwater exfiltrating in polders in the Netherlands, and hence surface water salinity, varies on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.
Publication Date: 2015
MEDICAL GEOLOGY Online Books
Essentials of Medical Geology (Online, Springer) by Olle Selinus (Editor);Essentials of Medical Geology reviews the essential concepts and practical tools required to tackle environmental and public health problems. It is organized into four main sections. The first section deals with the fundamentals of environmental biology, the natural and anthropogenic sources of health elements that impact health and illustrate key biogeochemical transformations. The second section looks at the geological processes influencing human exposure to specific elements, such as radon, arsenic, fluorine, selenium and iodine. The third section presents the concepts and techniques of pathology, toxicology and epidemiology that underpin investigations into the human health effects of exposure to naturally occurring elements. The last section provides a toolbox of analytical approaches to environmental research and medical geology investigations. Essentials of Medical Geology was first published in 2005 and has since won three prestigious rewards. The book has been recognized as a key book in both medical and geology fields and is widely used as textbook and reference book in these fields. For this revised edition, editors and authors have updated the content that evolved a lot during 2005 and added two new chapters, on public health, and agriculture and health. This updated volume can now continue to be used as a textbook and reference book for all who are interested in this important topic and its impacts the health and wellbeing of many millions of people all over the world. · Addresses key topics at the intersection of environmental science and human health · Developed by 60 international experts from 20 countries and edited by professionals from the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA) · Written in non-technical language for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from students and professional researchers to policymakers and the general public · Includes color illustrations throughout, references for further investigation and other aids to the reader
Publication Date: 2013
Medical Geology: Effects of Geological Environments on Human Health (Online, Science Direct) by Miomir M. KomatinaGeology, one of the basic natural sciences, is proving to be of outstanding importance in solving problems relating to: agriculture exploitation of the Earth's mineral resources environmental issues soil preservation water energy and other resources protection against natural disasters (landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes) as well as human health. The main objective of the book Medical Geology: Effects of Geological Environments on Human Health is to show how the geological environment affects human health and to explore preventative methods for improvement. This monograph consists of the following five segments: Introduction Geological and other factors and their influence on the human health Subject, tasks and methods of geomedical discipline Regional medical geology Applied medical geology The topics covered in this book will be of interest to a wide circle of readers, including geologists, doctors, biologists, ecologists, planners and many others who are dedicated to the quality and protection of human health.
Publication Date: 2004
GEOCHEMISTRY & MEDICINE / HEALTH Online Books
Medical Geochemistry: Geological Materials and Health (Online, SpringerLink) by Paolo Censi (Editor); Thomas Darrah (Editor);This book includes a collection of chapters illustratingnbsp;thenbsp;application ofnbsp;geochemical methods to investigate the interactions between geological materials and fluids with humans. Examples include the incorporation and human health effects of inhaling lithogenic materials, the reactivity of biological fluids with geological materials, and the impact on nascent biomineral formation. Biomineralization isnbsp;investigated in terms of mineralogy, morphology, bone chemistry, and pathological significance with a focus on the health impacts of "foreign" geological/environmental trace element incorporation. One of the contributionnbsp;is devoted to particulate matter, the presence of metals and metalloids in the environment, and the possibility of using human hair as a biomarker between environmental/geological exposure and human bioincorporation. Othernbsp;chapters focus on the last advances on the analytical methods and instrumentational approaches to investigating the chemistry of biological fluids and tissues.
Concepts and Applications in Environmental Geochemistry (Online, ProQuest eBooks) by Dibyendu Sarkar (Editor); Rupali Datta (Editor); Robyn Hannigan (Editor)This volume is for environmental researchers and government policy makers who are required to monitor environmental quality for their environmental investigators and remediation plans. It uses concepts and applications to aid in the exchange of scientific information across all the environmental science disciplines ranging from geochemistry to hydrogeology and ecology to biotechnology. Focusing on issues such as metals, organics and nutrient contamination of water and soils, and interactions between soil-water-plants-chemicals, the book synthesizes the latest findings in this rapidly-developing, multi-disciplinary field. Cutting-edge environmental analytical methods are also presented, making this a must-have for professionals tasked with monitoring environmental quality. These concepts and applications help in decision making and problem solving in a single resource. *Integrative approach promotes the exchange of scientific information among different disciplines *New concepts and case studies make the text unique among existing resources *Tremendous practical value in environmental quality and remediation with an emphasis on human health and ecological risk assessment
Publication Date: 2007
Application of Geochemical Tracers to Fluvial Sediment (Online SpringerLink) by Jerry Miller; Gail Mackin; Suzanne M. Orbock MillerThis book takes an in-depth look at the theory and methods inherent in the tracing of riverine sediments. Examined tracers include multi-elemental concentration data, fallout radionuclides (e.g., 210Pb, 137Cs, 7Be), radiogenic isotopes (particularly those of Pb, Sr, and Nd), and novel ("non-traditional") stable isotopes (e.g., Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn), the latter of which owe their application to recent advances in analytical chemistry. The intended goal is not to replace more 'traditional' analyses of the riverine sediment system, but to show how tracer/fingerprinting studies can be used to gain insights into system functions that would not otherwise be possible. The text, then, provides researchers and catchment managers with a summary of the strengths and limitations of the examined techniques in terms of their temporal and spatial resolution, data requirements, and the uncertainties in the generated results. The use of environmental tracers has increased significantly during the past decade because it has become clear that documentation of sediment and sediment-associated contaminant provenance and dispersal is essential to mitigate their potentially harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the use of monitoring programs to determine the source of sediments to a water body has proven to be a costly, labor intensive, long-term process with a spatial resolution that is limited by the number of monitoring sites that can be effectively maintained. Alternative approaches, including the identification and analysis of eroded upland areas and the use of distributed modeling routines also have proven problematic. The application of tracers within riverine environments has evolved such that they focus on sediments from two general sources: upland areas and specific, localized, anthropogenic point sources. Of particular importance to the former is the development of geochemical fingerprinting methods that quantify sediment provenance (and to a much lesser degree, sediment-associated contaminants) at the catchment scale. These methods have largely developed independently of the use of tracers to document the source and dispersal pathways of contaminated particles from point-sources of anthropogenic pollution at the reach- to river corridor-scale. Future studies are likely to begin merging the strengths of both approaches while relying on multiple tracer types to address management and regulatory issues, particularly within the context of the rapidly developing field of environmental forensics.
Publication Date: 2014
HUMAN WELFARE Online Books
Earth Materials and Health: research priorities for earth science and public health (Online eBook Central) by National Research Council (U.S.)A range of natural earth materials, like arsenic or fluoride, have long been linked to significant human health effects. Improved understanding of the pervasive and complex interactions between earth materials and human health will require creative collaborations between earth scientists and public health professionals. At the request of the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, this National Research Council book assesses the current state of knowledge at the interface between the earth sciences and public health disciplines. The book identifies high-priority areas for collaborative research, including understanding the transport and bioavailability of potentially hazardous earth materials, using risk-based scenarios to mitigate the public health effects of natural hazards under current and future climate regimes, and understanding the health risks that result from disturbance of earth systems. Geospatial information - geological maps for earth scientists and epidemiological data for public health professionals - is identified as one of the essential integrative tools that is fundamental to the activities of both communities. The book also calls for increased data sharing between agencies to promote interdisciplinary research without compromising privacy.