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Science - Biology 1 - Lab Reports Library Support: Reference Techniques

Library Resources in support to Biology 1

UJLink: Library Catalogue

Plagiarism & Referencing

Referencing a Journal Article

UJ Harvard Reference Techniques latest 2013 update

Example for Referencing an ARTICLE with 1 author:

Dyers, C. (2008). Language shift or maintenance? Factors determining the use of Afrikaans among some township youth in South Africa. Stellenbosch papers in Linguistics, 38:49-72.

Example for Referencing an ARTICLE with more than 3 authors:

Orom, U. A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M., Gumireddy, K., Gardini, A., Bussotti, G. & Shiekhattar, R. (2010). Long non-coding RNAs with enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58.


Orom, U.A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M. et al. (2010). Long non-coding RNA’s with Enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58


Orom, U.A., Derrien, T., Beringer, M., …Shiekhattar, R. (2010). Long noncoding RNAs with enhancer-like function in human cells. Cell, 143(1):46-58

What is Referencing?

What is referencing?

It is a way to demonstrate that you have extended your learning.

Two reasons for referencing:

· To let the reader know whose ideas you are using

· To enable your reader to check your information

  • Proper references must be given and must be sited in text. Use numbers (in text) and then list them in the order of appearance OR use surnames (in text) and list in alphabetical order.
  • At least 3 references must be used (may include the current text book) and NO internet references

How to Reference a Journal article

Reference to a journal article:

Authors (Surname and initials followed by comma after each initial e.g. James, J.& Snyman, M.) (date). Title of article. Journal Name, volume number, first page number – last page number.


Morais, A.C., & Ferreira, S.T. (2005). Folding and stability of a coiled-coil investigated using chemical and physical denaturing agents: Comparative analysis of polymerized and non-polymerized forms of α-tropomyosin. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 37:1386-1395.

Note:  In text you will refer to it as Morais & Ferreira (2005)

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton R. A. (2000). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163:51-59.  

Note: In text you will refer to it as Van der Geer et al., (2000)

How to Reference a Book

Reference to a book:

(Authors (follow each surname with a comma and full stops after initials (date). Title. (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher

Strunk Jr., W., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd Ed.). New York: Macmillan. 

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (1994). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.

Examples: Referencing a Book and Journal Article


Example Reference list:

Blake, N. (1998). Using the web in undergraduate education. Journal of Educational Computing, 5(2):234-251.

Blake, N. (1999a). Higher Education in the 21st century. New York: University Press.

Blake, N. (1999b). The promise of mobile technologies for education. Edulink, 3(2). Available from: (Accessed 8 February 2001).

Davis, K. (1987). Computer-based training for accountants. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Johannesburg: Rand Afrikaans University.